I wanted to give myself a challenge. So, I decided to create a YouTube video about a very complex topic that I knew very little about. I selected quantum entanglement (QE) theory. So, I had to do five things:
- Find out what QE theory was.
- Create an easy-to-understand entertaining story about it
- Figure out how to illustrate that story with the right graphics
- Figure out how to make those graphics
- Make it into a video.
What is quantum entanglement theory?
Quantum entanglement theory deals with the phenomenon of quantum mechanics called “entanglement,” where one particle can instantly influence another — even from opposite sides of the universe.
The video below should whet your appetite to learn more.
This TED talk should also whet your appetite.
Quantum entanglement theory says that two entangled photons can somehow instantly communicate, much faster than the speed of light, to link up their quantum states.
The quantum state of something is a mathematical tool that describes everything that can be physically measured about that thing. The state of quantum objects is not determined until an observation is made.
- For instance, the quantum state of a hydrogen atom has all the physical information one can get from measuring a hydrogen atom. This would include things like its
Momentum can be considered the “power” when an object is moving, meaning how much force it can have on another object.
You’ll have to search for the definitions of the other terms. This article is getting too long. However, to understand the next few paragraphs below, you must understand momentum.
In physics, we define momentum mathematically as the multiplication of mass and velocity as seen in this equation: p = m * v
- p = momentum
- m = mass
- v = velocity.
For an example of understanding momentum, think of a baseball and a tennis ball travelling towards your baseball glove at 150 mph. The tennis ball would be easier to catch because, even though the velocities are the same, the tennis ball has a smaller mass and therefore a lower momentum.
Spooky at a distance
The YouTube video below does a pretty good job of simplifying quantum entanglement theory for beginners. To really understand it, you may have to watch the video twice.
The video, using the very clever Einstein symbol you see to the right, told about Einstein’s attitude. The video is not entirely accurate.
Einstein called entanglement “spooky action at a distance”. He said this because he did not believe that quantum particles could affect one another faster than the speed of light. (Author’s note: The Two Light Speed theory would answer Einstein’s quandary.)
While Einstein didn’t think that quantum mechanics is wrong, he did contend that it is incomplete — that it didn’t tell the whole story.
The notion that two entangled particles separated by long distances can instantly affect each other — has been proven to work in a number of different experimental setups.
One of the most famous recent experiments was the Chinese Micius satellite experiment.
- Laser beam sent into light-altering crystal on Micius
- Crystal emitted pairs of photons entangled
- Their polarization states would be opposite when one was measured.
- Pairs were split
- Photons sent to separate receiving stations 1200 kilometers apart.
- Team reported simultaneously measuring more than 1000 photon pairs.
- Photons had opposite polarizations far more often than would be expected by chance
- Confirmed spooky action over a record distance
Delft University of Technology experiment
- Two unentangled electrons sitting in diamond crystals in different labs 1.3 kilometres apart.
- Each electron individually entangled with a photon
- Both of those photons then zipped to third location
- There the two photons were entangled with each other
- This caused both their partner electrons to become entangled, too.
- Team generated 245 entangled pairs of electrons over the course of nine days.
This experiment is explained in the YouTube video below.
Let’s say two photons are emitted from a particle (say a pion) with zero angular momentum. The spins of the two particles must add up to zero. So if physicist A snags one of the photons and measures its spin as +1, she knows instantly that if physicist B measures the other photon, its spin will be −1.
The Physics & Physicists website does a pretty good job of explaining things is their QE for Dummies article. Read it and see if you can figure out what this diagram is all about.
An important practical application of quantum entanglement theory
Scientists are working on a way to use quantum entanglement theory for secure communication. The concept of quantum communications is considered the gold standard for security.
Conventional encrypted messages require secret keys to decrypt, but those keys are vulnerable to eavesdropping as they are sent out into the ether.
Entangled particles could one day be used for “quantum communication” — a means of sending super secure messages that don’t rely on cables, wireless signals, or code.
Thoroughly understanding entanglement theory could also lead to the development of the most precise clocks ever made and super fast computers.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Entertaining story for video
Now on to the second part of this blog post — creating a simple easy-to-understand video about a very complex topic. Below begins the script for the video.
Quantum Entanglement Treory
In a world much smaller than ours, in a world much smaller than an atom lived a single particle of light called a photon.
Researchers created another photon. It became entangled with the other photon. They became best friends.
But then, the researchers tried to destroy the friendship. They sent one photon to Research Station A and the other one to Research Station B. These research stations were 1200 km apart.
The researchers could not break up the friendship. Each photon began to do exactly opposite what the other one was doing. If one would spin left, the other one would spin right.
The two photons above experienced what 1000 photon pairs experienced in China. The Chinese sent up a satellite named Micius.
A laser beam was sent from earth to a light-altering crystal on Micius. This caused the crystal to emit pairs of entangled photons. The researchers sent the two photons from each pair to two research stations 1200 km apart.
The pairs of photons had opposite polarizations far more often than would be expected by chance.
You may be thinking that one photon sent a signal to the other changing the polarizaton. However, the photons changed polarization much faster than they could have if they were changed by a signal going 1200 km at the speed of light.
That concept confused Albert Einstein. His theory of relatively said that nothing could travel faster than the speed of light.
I suppose that future quantum physics experiments will have to go beyond the four dimensions of length, width, height and time. Those are the dimensions that Einstein used in his theory of relativity.
Some contemporary string theories include as many as 26 dimensions. If possible, it would be worth while testing the possibility that light could travel much faster than 186,000 mps in another dimension.
It could be that this fast light could be called “creative light”. It is within the realm of the possible that creative light was used to create the slower created light.
You may be wondering why one photon would always have a quantum state that is opposite the quantum state of its entangled pair.
It’s because of the theory that says angular momentum of the universe must remain constant.
To learn much more about quantum entanglement theory, go to kelownavirtualassistant.com/quantum-entanglement.
Illustrating the above story
One way of making this story interesting is to personalize the photons. That would involve giving them a face.
To illustrate the idea of quantum states, it is good enough to include only one state — spin. It’s easy to illustrate with an animated GIF. Using only one state keeps it simple and therefore easier to follow the story.
To show the laser beam going up to the satellite, I could use this animated GIF.
To make the research stations 1200 km apart, I will use GIMP and save the parts that show the measurements as individual pieces. They will show up one at a time on a map of China.
To show two entangled photons, I use two slightly different photon drawings on top of a bit of fishing net.
To show the spin changing faster than the speed of light, I created an animated GIF to show the signal moving much faster than light.
How to make those graphics
Using GIMP, I created 4 different drawings of the same photon. To get the idea of spinning, I had 3 distinctly different noses. The rest of the head features should be self explanatory.
To make the still pictures into an animation, I used Keynote. I dragged the four pictures onto a single slide. Each picture had to be in the right order. Each picture had to build in with an Appear effect and then build out with a Disappear effect.
You use the same pictures for spin right and spin left. You just change the order of presentation.
When recording with ScreenFlow, you have to edit out the blank spaces that have no pictures of the photon. For an entire video I had a grand total of exactly four clips.
Using Clip Inspector, I reduced each clip to exactly 0.3 seconds.
Laser light to satellite
To make the laser light moving to the satellite, I first used GIMP to copy the tiny satellite part of the photo. I gave it a descriptive name.
Then, using Keynote, I used the Move action to move the satellite from the bright light on earth to the satellite in space.
1200 km on map
This was done on Keynote. I had part of China from a globe. Then, one at a time, a added PNG files which were the parts that created the graphic showing 1200 km distance.
One at a time I used the Keynote Appear built-in effect to add the parts of the distance graphic. After they were recorded with ScreenFlow, I used Clip Inspector to reduce the graphic-building time to exactly one second.
4 dimensions of E = mc2
This was similar to the 1200 km graphic. The box had a Keynote built-in effect of None. The 3 words and the picture of the clock and math symbols had a built-in effect of Appear.
Below is the video that tries to capture the essence of this page in 3 minutes.
Sources of quantum entanglement theory information
Two Light Speed theory
The Two Light Speed theory states that before the universe was created, there may have been a speed of light much faster (say, 400,000 times faster) than our present slow speed of 186,000 miles/second. The faster speed could be called “creative light”. God used creative light to make created light — the light that travels at 186,000 mps.
The Free Dictionary defines photon as The smallest unit of light or other electromagnetic energy, having no mass
and no electric charge. Photons behave both as particles and waves.
Yahoo! Answers tells us that a pion is a subatomic particle. It belongs to the class of mesons. It exists in three charge states namely π+, π- and πo.
They are unstable.
Their rest mass is around 273 times the mass of the electron.
The charged mesons decay into mu mesons and neutrino with a mean life of 10^-8 s. The neutral one decays by emitting two gamma rays with a mean life 10^-16 s.
They are really short lived !!
They have zero spin
They are the quanta of nuclear field just as the photon is the quanta of electromagnetic field